I am thinking about asking my students how they would describe "effective homework." My guess is that some will think the phrase is an oxymoron!!
Over at the ASCD Inservice blog, Diana Strasser posted some interesting commentary related to this topic. She quotes Robert Marzano's book, The Art & Science of Teaching in suggesting the following guidelines for effective homework:
- Homework needs to be completed in order to produce the highest achievement gains. Design it with ease of completion in mind.
- A large amount of homework does not result in better learning.
- Homework should be academically purposeful, not a punishment or a symbol of the seriousness of study.
- Homework should be explicitly tied to the current learning goals of the class.
- Homework should be able to be completed without adult assistance.
- Parents or guardians should not be expected to act as content experts.
- Parents should, however, be provided with clear homework guidelines.
- Assignments that involve using the parents' expertise or personal experiences (such as interviews) are often successful.
I struggle with the suggestions that "Homework should be able to be completed without adult assistance" and "Parents or guardians should not be expected to act as content experts." These two seem to work against the final suggestion that "Assignments that involve using the parents' expertise or personal experiences...are often successful." As a math teacher, it is not uncommon to hear one of three comments at parent/teacher conferences:
If parental assistance is available at home, then why shouldn't I expect those students to take advantage of the extra help? During class time, I highly encourage my students to ask questions of each other and of me. Parents are simply another available resource. Furthermore, parents may be able to explain a concept or idea from a different perspective based on their previous education and current working experience that might "click" with a student in a way that I am unable to communicate to them.
- "I didn't understand/like math in high school either so I can't help my child at home."
- "I really use a lot of math at my __________ job. I always try to help my child with his/her math homework."
- "I used to be able to help out with math homework, but this high school math is over my head."
I am not ready to give up "extending learning" outside the walls of my classroom if it can be done in a way that benefits students. I admit that my experience teaching in a district with a predominantly middle-class demographic skews my perspective on this subject.
I am wondering if I am missing the boat here. Why wouldn't we want ("requiring" may be a source of disagreement, I admit) our students to take advantage of the expertise found in their own homes?